Fermo is the fifth and youngest province of le Marche, established by Law n. 147 of 11.06.2004. In 2009 it was effective. Accordingly, it was carved out of the present territory of the province of Ascoli Piceno, to which it belonged since 1861. The new province includes 40 municipalities, has a population of around 176 thousand inhabitants and has an area of 860 sq km.

The territory of the province of Fermo is bordered in the north by the province of Macerata, in the south by the province of Ascoli Piceno and in the east by the Adriatic Sea.